In developmental psychology, "attachment theory" studies the emotional bond between one person and another (most commonly between caregiver and infant).
During the first six months of a baby's life, the caregiver must provide adequate care for their newborn in order to form a strong bond. Failure to form a healthy bond early in the baby's development can lead to several emotional problems for the baby later on.
What is Attachment Theory?
John Bowlby, a psychologist and psychoanalyst, proposed attachment theory in the 1950s and 1960s and made notable contributions to the field of psychotherapy with his work on attachment.
While Bowlby has not disputed the possibility of children forming multiple bonds with different people, he nonetheless holds that the bond between mother and baby is the strongest of all, as it is the first bond made.
Attachment theory examines how the caregiver-child bond develops and what effects it has on subsequent development. Throughout his career in the 1930s, Bowlby worked as a psychiatrist in a London clinic, treating mentally ill children.
During this time, Bowlby recognized the important dynamic between parent and child and how profoundly these dynamics can affect social, emotional, and cognitive development. He soon discovered that early separation of infants could lead to later maladaptation, and thus attachment theory was developed.
Bowlby describes attachment as:
exploration ofparent-child relationshipIn addition, Bowlby and his colleague James Robertson studied a group of small infants. They found that when the children were separated from a parent, they constantly showed signs of stress.
This research is at odds with "behavioural theorists," who suggest that separation anxiety resolves when a child is fed.
Bowlby and Robertson observed that children could not be comforted when a parent was absent, whether or not they were being fed.
Bowlby and Robertson's research contradicts behavioral theory, which states that infants bond with their mothers through feeding.
Interestingly, attachment does not have to be mutual, and it is possible for one person to be attached to another without being reciprocated. According to Bowlby, attachment is characterized by specific behaviors in children, such as B. seeking closeness to a caregiver when feeling angry or threatened (Bowlby, 1969).
attachment and evolution
Arguing that attachment is a biological process, Bowlby went on to say that all infants are born with an "attachment gene" that allows them to release so-called "social triggers" that cause the child to cling to a caregiver when it even cries a smile that they are receiving the attention and care they crave.
Interestingly, the same "attachment gene" that children are born with is also present in the parents, and this drives a caregiver to protect and nurture a child.
"Monotropy" is a term denoting a major attachment figure, a concept developed by Bowlby alongside his attachment theory. He concluded that if, for some reason, a successful “monotropic” bond is not formed, negative consequences could occur.
Bowlby identified four types of attachment styles:secure, anxious-ambivalent, disorganized, and avoidant.
The secure attachment style represents a warm and loving bond between parent and child. The child feels loved and cared for and develops the ability to form healthy relationships with those around them.
Children with secure attachment styles are active and show confidence in their interactions with others.
Those who develop secure attachment styles in childhood are likely to carry that healthy attachment style into adulthood and have no problem building long-term relationships without fear of abandonment.
Anxious-ambivalent children tend to mistrust caregivers, and this insecurity often leads to exploring their surroundings with more fear than excitement.
They constantly seek the approval of their caregivers and constantly monitor their surroundings for fear of being abandoned.
Those who have evolved under the “anxious-ambivalent” attachment style tend to carry what they have learned into adulthood and very often feel unloved by their partners while finding love and connection difficult themselves express.
People who have developed attachments under this style are typically emotionally dependent in adulthood.
Children who have developed under the "avoidance style" have learned to accept that their emotional needs are likely to go unmet and continue to grow up unloved and unimportant.
They often have difficulty expressing their feelings and find it difficult to understand emotions - in adulthood; They tend to avoid intimate relationships.
Disorganized attachment is a combination of avoidant and fearful attachment, and children who fit into this group often display intense anger and rage. They may break toys and behave in other erratic ways - they also have difficult relationships with significant others.
Children developed under the "disorganized" attachment style tend to avoid intimate relationships as adults, can explode very easily, and have trouble controlling their emotions.
In the 1970s, developmental psychologist Mary Ainsworth conducted a study of infants between the ages of 9 and 18 months; the study observed attachment security in children in the paradigm of caregiver relationships.
This comprised eight short episodes (about 3 minutes long) introducing a mother, child and stranger, separated and then reunited.
This observational study was titled "Strange Situation" and was developed by Ainsworth and Wittiq in 1969.
Using the odd situation model, Ainsworth studied one- to two-year-olds to determine attachment styles and the nature of mother-infant attachments.
The construction took place in a small room with one-way glass so that the children could be well observed. Ainsworth's sample of children represented 100 middle-class American families.
In short episodes, the children, mothers and experimenters were observed in the following eight scenarios:
- Experimenter, mother and baby
- mother and baby alone
- A stranger joins the mother and child
- The mother leaves stranger and baby alone
- Mother comes back and the stranger goes
- The mother also leaves, leaving the baby completely alone
- stranger comes back
- Stranger leaves and mother returns
After the study, Ainsworth scored each of the responses and grouped them into four interaction behaviors:Proximity and contact search, contact maintenance, avoidance of proximity and contact, contact and proximity resistance.These interactions were based on two reunion episodes during observation.
Attachment style results
From the observational study, Ainsworth (1970) identified three attachment styles;secure (type B), insecure-avoidant (type A), and insecure-ambivalent/resistant (type C).
Secure attachment: Type B
Fortunately, the majority of children in Ainsworth's representative sample from the 1970s belonged to the "secure attachment" style. Children belonging to this style found it easy to demonstrate trust in attachment figures and tended to use these "monotrope" attachment figures as a basis for exploring their surroundings.
These infants are easily reassured by primary caregivers, and children developing under this style are nurtured and encouraged by caregivers, giving them a safe platform for safe development.
Uncertain Avoidant: Type A
Children who fall under the avoidance style tend not to look at their caregiver when exploring their surroundings. In emergencies, they do not turn to the reference person.
Such children are likely to have a caregiver who is insensitive and rejects their needs (Ainsworth, 1979).
Uncertain ambivalent/resistant: Type C
The ultimate attachment style (uncertain ambivalent) is when a child exhibits ambivalent behavior toward their caregiver. The child is not easily comforted by the caregiver and often exhibits clingy and dependent behavior towards a caregiver, yet rejects them at times of interaction.
When exploring the environment, the child shows difficulty detaching from the caregiver. Ainsworth concluded that this behavior stems from a lack of consistency passed from caregiver to child.
Ainsworth's 'maternal sensitivity' hypothesis suggests that the 'sensitivity' that the caregiver exhibits toward an infant determines the attachment style that is developed. In short, sensitive mothers are more likely to be gentle and compassionate with a child's needs, and this sensitivity can lead to the child developing more secure attachments.
Mothers who lack sensitivity (eg, those who show impatience) can cause children to develop insecure attachments.
Children with sensitive caregivers are associated with secure attachment, and children with inconsistent caregivers are often associated with insecure, ambivalent attachments. Inconsistency occurs when two parents often ignore or even deny a child's needs, while at other times - the child's needs are met.
In situations where parents show apathy or are in some way unresponsive to a child, this often results in the child becoming independent of the caregiver; They also tend not to seek help from significant others in times of need. The caregiver may withdraw from help even with difficult tasks (Stevenson-Hinde & Verschueren, 2002) and is often unavailable in times of emotional distress.
According to Ainsworth, this type of parenting can often lead to children becoming insecurely avoidant.
Fiona Yassin is the International Clinical Director of Wave Clinic. Fiona is a Fellow of A.P.C.C.H., a member of F.D.A.P. and I.A.E.D.P. Fiona is currently studying C.E.D.S. and is an Accredited Clinical Supervisor (U.N.C.G.) and Accredited Expert in Child and Family Trauma.
With professional interest ineating disorderandBorderline Personality Disorders, currently pursuing postgraduate training in Psychiatry for Women throughout the Lifespan, Massachusetts Psychiatry Department. The Wave Clinic offers inpatient and outpatient consultation hours for children, adolescents, young adults and families.
There are three main types of threaded fastener; Bolts, Screws and Studs. Bolts have a head on one end (this is usually a hex head) and are threaded on the other. They are generally used in conjunction with a nut (and sometimes a washer) to hold them in place.What fastening is most used? ›
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- Metric Thread. Metric thread is the most widely used today, and can otherwise be referred to as 'ISO Metric' or 'M'. ...
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- UNF. ...
- BA. ...
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- #1) Wood Screw. Perhaps the single most common type of screw is a wood screw. ...
- #2) Machine Screw. A machine screw, as the name suggests, is a type of screw that's used in machining applications. ...
- #3) Lag Screw. ...
- #4) Sheet Metal Screw. ...
- #5) Twinfast Screw. ...
- #6) Security Screw.
Screws with a smooth shank and tapered point for use in wood. Screws with threads for use with a nut or tapped hole. Machine screws with a thread cutting (self tapping) point. Fully threaded screws with a point for use in sheet metal.
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Grade 5. Manufactured from medium carbon steel and hardened for greater strength and durability, a grade 5 bolt is distinguished by 3 radial lines and promises tensile strengths between 105,000 and 120,000 psi. They are most commonly found in automotive applications or those that require medium strength.What is a Class 1 bolt? ›
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Tightening threaded fasteners
Tools for use on threaded fasteners include screwdrivers, spanners, sockets and keys, and drivers. They can also be ratcheting, air-powered, or electrical tools.